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    Embroidery: Eight Period Stitches

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    Join date : 2011-05-30

    Embroidery: Eight Period Stitches

    Post  Admin on Wed Jun 01, 2011 11:08 pm

    Stem Stitch or Outline Stitch


    The Stem stitch is
    worked left to right. The needle emerges at the end of the line to be covered.
    It then enters the material a little to the left on the line to be covered and
    emerges half way between where the needle emerged and where it enters the
    fabric. Be sure that the needle always emerges on the same side of the line
    being worked, or your stem stitch will appear twisted. For a thin line, always
    pass the needle through the drawn line of your pattern. For a fuller, more
    cable-like look, push the needle down on one side of the line, and bring it up
    on the other side of the line, giving each stitch a slight slant. Be sure to be
    consistent on which side you go down on and which side you come up on.



    The stem stitch can be
    used to make outlines, or when lengths of stem stitches are worked side by
    side, it can be used to fill a design element.



    Split Stitch


    Work just like the Stem
    Stitch, only instead of the needle emerging beside the previous stitch, the
    needle passes through the preceding stitch. Also, only back up about a third of
    the previous stitch, not half way as in the stem stitch.



    Can be used as an
    outline stitch, or as a filling stitch.



    Double Running Stitch or Holbein Stitch


    A simple running stitch
    that requires two passes to cover the line of the design. The needle emerges at
    the beginning of the line. Make a series of short stitches - leaving a gap
    between each stitch that is the same length as the stitches. Also take care
    that each stitch is the same length. (i.e., ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ )



    When the end of the line
    is reached, turn the work and work back to the beginning, filling in the gaps.



    This is the main stitch
    used in black work, and when done with care, results in the back of the work
    being identical with the front of the work.



    Chain Stitch


    Bring the needle up at
    the beginning of the line. Use your thumb to hold the thread against the
    fabric, a little to the left of the line. Pass the need back down through the
    fabric in the same spot it came up through. Do not pull the stitch tight! Bring
    the needle up a little farther down the line of the design, passing through the
    loop this has created. Now pull the stitch tight until the bottom the loop is
    snug, but still laying below where the thread is emerging from the fabric.
    Insert the needle in the same spot the thread is coming out of the fabric and
    insert it a little farther down the design line, again coming up through the
    loop. Continue in this fashion.



    You can create a wider
    chain by inserting the needle beside the emerging thread, instead of going back
    down the same hole you came up through. The farther to the side, the wider the
    chain.



    Surface Couching (and Underside Couching)


    Bring one or more
    threads up through the fabric at the starting point of the design. Lay the
    threads on the fabric. With another thread (either a contrasting, or matching
    color), make a series of small stitches across the main thread. Be sure the
    main thread lies smooth and does not pucker or bunch. When using couching to
    fill in a design, you can create a further design effect by how you place the
    couching stitches, whether you stagger them, or line them up from thread to
    thread. The commonest method for working metallic threads.



    An older version of
    couching is called Underside Couching. In this method, the main thread is laid
    on the fabric. With a different thread, come up beside the main thread, pass
    over it, and put the needle back through the same hole. Tug the couching stitch
    all the way back through the fabric, pulling the main thread through the fabric
    just enough to let the couching thread disappear from the surface.



    Brick Stitch


    Work first row right to
    left, second row left to right, third row right to left, and so on. The first
    row consists of alternating long and show stitches (see diagram above). Each
    succeeding row consists of long stitches only, until the last row, which is
    again worked in alternating long and short stitches. All long stitches should
    be the same length, with the short stitches being half as long. All stitches
    should lie parallel to each other.



    The stitches can be
    packed together tightly so that no fabric shows through, or they can be worked
    with a slight gap between stitches to create a more airy effect. This works
    well to fill in backgrounds, or rectangular areas. Does not do curves easily.



    The modern variation on
    this, known as the Long and Short stitch, was also used in medieval embroidery.
    In the Long and Short stitch, the stitches to not stay strictly parallel and
    can fan out to fill the design area.



    Satin Stitch


    Bring needle up on left
    side of design element. Lay thread across design and push needle down on right
    side of design element. Bring need up on the left side, right beside the
    previous stitch. Push needle down on left side, right beside where the needle
    passed down on the previous stitch. Continue in this manner until the design is
    completely covered. The back of the work will be as fully covered as the front.
    Pull the stitches tight enough so that they lie flat and do not flop around,
    but not so tightly that the fabric puckers.



    To make a raised satin
    stitch, cover the design area with chain stitches or brick stitches, then work
    the satin stitch on top of them. It is also easier to keep the correct tension
    on your satin stitches if you do this. The under stitches don’t have to be
    perfect, since they will not show in the finished product.



    Bayeaux Stitch or Laid Work


    Bring needle up at
    position A and down at position B (far left example). Bring needle up at
    position C, leaving a gap between the A-B thread that is the same width as the
    thread. Take needle down through position D. Continue until you reach the
    bottom of the area to be covered. Turn the work 180 degrees. Bring the needle
    up between the original A and D positions, push need down between the B and C
    positions, filling the gaps. Continue in this manner until area is completely
    covered. (middle examples above)



    Lay thread across work
    at right angles to first sets of threads (see the far right example). Lay
    couching stitches over this thread.



    Tips


    Never knot the end of
    your thread to anchor it at the starting point of your stitches. It will leave
    an unsightly lump on the front of your work. An easy way to anchor the
    beginning of your thread starts out by breaking this rule. Put a knot in your
    thread. From the front side of the work, push the needle through the fabric
    about 3 inches away from your starting point. Bring the needle up through your
    starting point and embroidery. Be careful not to pull the first stitches so tight
    that the fabric puckers near the knot. When you reach the end of your thread
    (or the end of the area to embroidered with this thread), snip the knot and
    thread the 3 inches of thread onto a needle. Weave this into the back of the
    stitches just worked. You can also use a very small crochet hook to weave this
    ‘tail’ into the back of your work.



    If you are doing the
    brick stitch or satin stitch, you can take four or five little running stitches
    (in the area you are about to cover), at right angles to the direction your
    first ‘real’ stitch will be going. Hold these stitches in place with your thumb
    while you pull the first three or four embroidery stitches taut. After that,
    you don’t have to worry about them, they’ll stay. This anchors the thread, and
    your brick or satin stitches will completely cover the running stitches. If you
    are careful, you can anchor the end of the thread the same way - just be
    careful not to catch the embroidery threads on the front.



    When you reach the end
    of your thread, or a stopping point in the design, always weave the thread
    through the back of the stitches to anchor the end of the thread. Never use a
    knot or several small stitches in the same spot (like you would for normal hand
    sewing). They will leave a lump on the front. The lump may not show up
    immediately, but trust me, it will appear.



    If you are embroidering
    a garment, and if you are worried that this method of starting and ending a
    section of embroidery will not hold, you can iron on a very light weight
    fusable interfacing to the back of the work. If your fabric is very light
    weight, you can touch the interweavings with a bit of fray check, instead.
    However, if you are planning on entering your work in an A&S competition,
    don’t add the fusable interfacing until after the competition! Lining a garment
    that has been embroidered will help reduce wear and tear on the back of the
    stitches. Again, if you are entering the embroidery in an A&S competition,
    leave one seam of the lining undone, so the judges can see the back of the work.



    Which leads to: make the
    back of the work as neat as you possibly can. Judges will look at the back and
    neatness definitely counts. More importantly, a neat back leaves fewer stray
    threads to be caught and pulled, causing puckers, or caught and broken, causing
    your stitches to unravel.



    When using floss (either
    cotton or silk) always separate the plies one at a time. Even if the number of
    plies you have is the number you need, separate them first. Both cotton and
    silk floss come in skeins of six plies (six threads loosely twisted together).
    After clipping the length of thread you want (never more than 18 inches!), hold
    one end in your hand and grab one of the plies. Pull gently. If it doesn’t
    slide out easily, switch to the other end of the thread. Embroidery floss has a
    nap, like velvet, and if you pull against the nap, the thread will bunch up. If
    you pull with the nap, it slides easily. If you take care to thread your needle
    so that the thread is being pulled through the fabric with the nap, your thread
    will not fray. If you pull the thread through the fabric against the nap, it
    frays very quickly. If you find that your stitches start looking a little fuzzy
    or sloppy before you’ve used half the thread in your needle, you are pulling
    against the nap. Tie off the thread and get a new one. With a little practice,
    you will be able to feel the nap of the thread. Be patient, the difference in
    feel is very slight.



    Never pass the thread on
    the back side of the work more than half an inch to get from the end of one set
    of stitches to the beginning of the next set. It will show! Also, it increases
    the probability that your fabric will pucker. You can, however, weave your
    thread through the back of existing stitches to get it where you need to start
    the next set of stitches.



    Do have several needles
    going at once for a multi color design. By switching from working one color to
    working another, you decrease the temptation to carry the thread across the
    back without weaving it into the back of stitches. Unless individual design
    elements are so small that there is no room to weave in the beginning and the
    ending of the thread, just don’t hop from one design element to the other - tie
    off and start fresh with each design element.



    When following these
    instructions seems to be creating a bigger mess than breaking them does, ignore
    the instructions and do what works. Sometimes, you have to break the rules to
    get the results you want.

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